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任务式语言教学在高职ESP教学中应用

时间: 2015-03-04 编号:sb201503041009 作者:蜂朝网
类别:英语论文 行业: 字数:38200 点击量:1047
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文章摘要:
In view of the above mentioned facts, it can be seen that ESP teaching in highervocational colleges in China nowadays can not adequately meet the needs of ESP learners anddoes not ensure a pleasing teaching effect.

1 Introduction


1.1 Background

English, as a communication tool, not only performs the basic function of routinecommunication, but plays a vital role in passing information in different industries. Thus, theimportance of ESP ( English for Specific Purpose) that involves economy, science, business,branch, medicine, oil, hotel, etc. becomes increasingly apparent and ESP teaching has beencarried out rapidly in the last ten years. Since 21st century, ESP teaching becomes the maincontent of vocational English teaching in China.In 1996, Vocational Education Law was formally released in china which explicitlyindicated the importance of vocational education in the field of law. In 1999, a set ofguidelines and policies to highlight the significance of vocational education were issued bythe Ministry of Education. In 2006, the former Minister of Education, Mr. Zhou pointed outaccelerating the development of vocational education was one of the three major tasks oflong-term development program on education. In 2014, Premier Li Keqiang chaired a StateCouncil executive meeting, deploying to further develop modern vocational education. Withthe deepening of reform and opening, professionals are increasingly demanded. Therefore,ESP teaching, as the key content in vocational English teaching, is getting more attention inthe global background.Compared with EGP (English for General Purpose) teaching, ESP teaching has its ownstriking features. Firstly, ESP teaching emphasizes specialization. Secondly, ESP learners’learning goals are so clear that they view English as a means or a tool for further professionalstudy. Thirdly, ESP learners expect to have the ability to use English flexibly once they startto work. However, current ESP teaching in higher vocational colleges has some problems, notfully reaching the English teaching goal of improving students’ communicative ability inEnglish and enhancing students’ employment competitive power. Some ESP teachers inhigher vocational college nowadays still follow the traditional teaching method,overemphasizing grammar and vocabulary while neglecting the practical exercises and theinteraction between teachers and students. In other words, the cultivation of the students’communicative ability is ignored. Such kind of teaching method is not applicable in ESP classand can not meet the needs of ESP learners in higher vocational colleges any more.

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1.2 Significance

In view of the above mentioned facts, it can be seen that ESP teaching in highervocational colleges in China nowadays can not adequately meet the needs of ESP learners anddoes not ensure a pleasing teaching effect. Though ESP teachers in higher vocational collegeshave tried to apply TBLT in their teaching to some extent, some of them have vague ideas ofwhat TBLT really is and lack experience of using TBLT in language teaching. Languagelearning strategies and motivation of the students in higher vocational colleges are differentfrom those of the students in general colleges. For the study on the combination of TBLT andESP, few of the researchers choose the students in higher vocational colleges as experimentalsubjects till now. The present study tries to indicate that TBLT and ESP fit together and aimsat proving the effectiveness of TBLT in ESP teaching in higher vocational colleges.Meanwhile, the selected topic has both theoretical and practical significance. In theory,the study can further broaden the scope of the application of TBLT and facilitate thelocalization use of TBLT in ESP teaching in higher vocational colleges. In practice, not onlycan the study make students in higher vocational colleges learn knowledge of English, butalso help change the traditionally tedious ESP class into an exciting one and make students soactive to participate in class activities. What’s more, the author takes Hotel English lesson asan example in hope to illustrate the targets of cultivating the practical talents can be met byutilizing TBLT and in hope that the design of the Hotel English course based on TBLT canprovide reference for other ESP courses.

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2 Literature Review


2.1 Introduction of TBLT

How to understand “task” accurately is the key to implement task-based languageteaching. So it is necessary to have a discussion of the definition of “task” at the beginning. Ingeneral, task refers to all sorts of things that people do under non-educational environment orin daily life. In Modern Chinese Dictionary, “task” is described as the assigned work andresponsibility, which is accepted by most people. However, different linguists have differentexplanations of the word “task”. Some of those are listed below.Task is a range of work plans which have the overall purpose of facilitating languagelearning from the simple and brief exercise type to more complex and lengthy activities suchas group problem-solving or simulations and decision-making (Breen, 1987:23).Task is a piece of classroom work which involves learners in comprehending,manipulating, producing or interacting in the target language while their attention isprincipally focused on the meaning rather on the form (Nunan,1989:15).Task is an activity which is designed to help achieve a particular goal. A number ofdimensions of tasks influence their use in language teaching. They include goals, procedures,order, pacing, product, learning strategy, assessment, participation, resources and language(Richards & Schmidt, 2010:584).

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2.2 Introduction of ESP Teaching

English for Special/Specific Purposes (ESP), a new sub-discipline, formed in 1960s,which refers to a phenomenon that grows out of a number of converging trends, but not aplanned movement. There are three main reasons for the origins of ESP. Firstly, after theSecond World War in 1945, learning English was strongly advocated in many countries to getrid of financial crisis brought by the war and to revive the economy, because English hadbeen seen as an international language in the field of technology and commerce. Therefore,the goal of learning English was quite clear, that was, mastering English was to meetparticular vocational needs. Secondly, there was a revolution in linguistics as new ideas beganto emerge in the study of language. The new studies of English had shifted attention awayfrom grammar to real communication. Thirdly, new developments of educational psychologyalso contributed to the rise of ESP, by emphasizing the central importance of the learners andtheir attitudes to learning.

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3 Research Design.... 25

3.1 Objectives....... 25

3.2 Subjects .... 25

3.3 Methods.... 25

3.4 Hypotheses ..... 26

3.5 Process...... 26

3.6 Data Collection..... 43

4 Results and Discussion..... 48

4.1 Statistical Analysis of All the Data .... 48

4.2 Analysis of the Results of Questionnaires...... 56

4.3 Discussion of the Research .... 59

5 Conclusion....... 60

5.1 Major Findings ..... 60

5.2 Research Limitations........ 60

5.3 Teaching Implications ...... 60

5.4 Suggestions for Future Research........ 62


4 Results and Discussion


4.1 Statistical Analysis of All the Data

Since normal distribution is the basis for further analysis, it must be sure that all thescore distribution is normal at first. According to Bachman (1997), in normal distribution,skewness and kurtosis should be 0. But as a rule of thumb, values for skewness and kurtosisof between -2 and +2 indicate a reasonable normal distribution. An additional approach is todivide skewness and kurtosis by their standard errors. If the value of this ratio is between -2and +2, it is about 95% confident that the distribution is normal. As shown in Tab. 4.1, it can be found that in CGCEE mean is 88.20, median 90.00. Thetwo measures of central tendency are similar and nearly coincide with each other, whichindicates that the distribution of the scores is relatively normal. What’s more, the values ofskewness and kurtosis are respectively -.462 and -.244 which are both between the range of -2and +2, and therefore indicate a reasonable normal distribution. In addition, the values of std.error of skewness and kurtosis are respectively .398 and .778, which are also between -2 and+2. Therefore it is about 95% confident that the distribution of the CEE scores of controlgroup is normal.


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Conclusion


There are few empirical researches in the application of TBLT into ESP teaching inhigher vocational colleges according to the statistics of the relevant thesis in HowNet, so thestudy conducted in the thesis is meaningful and valuable, which gets the following findings:

1) It can be seen that after the teaching experiment, there is no significant differencebetween TBLT and the traditional teaching method in improving the students’ written Englishability of the two classes. But it is obvious that the oral English proficiency of the studentsfrom the experimental class is higher than that of the students from the control class.Therefore it is concluded that TBLT is more effective in improving students’ oral Englishability compared with the traditional teaching method.

2) TBLT is really feasible, practical and effective in ESP teaching in higher vocationalcolleges. Organizing teaching with tasks makes the classroom teaching not tedious and dullany more. The students show great enthusiasm in fulfilling the tasks, the process of whichprovides them with a lot of opportunities for interaction and encourages them to use languagemore naturally.

3) It is not only easy for students to accept TBLT, but also TBLT is popular with them inthe process of teaching. In addition, compared with the traditional teaching method, theapplication of TBLT to ESP teaching in higher vocational colleges is more beneficial to givefull play to students’ initiative, establish their communicative confidence, stimulate theirlearning interest, make them braver to participate in the teaching activities and cultivate theircreative, communicative and cooperative abilities.

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Reference (omitted)


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