体裁知识对英语专业学生听力理解影响概述 - 蜂朝网
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体裁知识对英语专业学生听力理解影响概述

时间: 2015-02-06 编号:sb201502061184 作者:蜂朝网
类别:英语论文 行业: 字数:35620 点击量:982
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文章摘要:
With the development of second language acquisition, more and more scholars haverealized the important role of listening. Morley said that “the importance of listening cannot beunderestimated.

Chapter One Introduction


1.1 Introduction

Listening is one of the most frequently used language skills in everyone’s daily life.According to Rivers, “on average, we can expect to listen twice as much as we speak, fourtimes more than we read, and five times more than we write” (Rivers, 1981). As one of the fourbasic language skills, listening plays an important role in communication, and has long been afocus of foreign language teaching in our country. However, in current teaching practice,listening course is not regarded as important as other courses, such as grammar, writing andreading , and the teaching quality is not satisfactory in many colleges, thus, many scholars havebeen devoting themselves in exploring a more effective teaching method for listeninginstruction.In mid-1980s, genre-based teaching approach appeared, and it is a pedagogy based ongenre theory and genre analysis, aiming at presenting the structure and writing purposes ofdifferent kinds of genres to learners and it emphasizes that we should value genre during theteaching process. Thus, in recent 20 years, more and more scholars put their focus on genre andapply it broadly to English teaching practice, and have successfully proved that genreknowledge is of great practicability and significance in writing and reading instruction.However, compared with the achievements in reading and writing, the application of genreknowledge on listening instruction has not been fully investigated. What is more, among thestudies on listening practice, most researchers focus their attention on pure theoretical studieswithout providing any statistical and practical support. There are indeed some empiricalresearches studying the application of genre knowledge in listening instruction, but most oftheir subjects are high school students or non-English majors, and up to now, very few havebeen done on studying English majors. However, for English majors, mastering listening skill isthe fundamental requirement, and their listening learning process should be better instructed,thus studies on applying genre knowledge in listening instruction for English majors are muchmore important and necessary.

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1.2 Research Background

With the development of second language acquisition, more and more scholars haverealized the important role of listening. Morley said that “the importance of listening cannot beunderestimated; it is imperative that it not be treated trivially in second and foreign languagecurricula” (Morley, 1991). Listening is used as a medium for people to communicate with eachother, and a systematic development of listening comprehension also is a foundation forspeaking, just as Rivers presented “Speaking does not of itself constitute communication unlesswhat is said is heard and comprehended by another person” (Rivers, 1966:204). What Rivershad said further indicated the important function of listening played in second languageacquisition. Since listening is such an important aspect in language learning, English syllabusmakes clear and concrete requirements on it for English learners, especially for English majors.

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Chapter Two Literature Review


2.1 Introduction

Every practical teaching experiment needs theoretical support and guidance, and success inEnglish listening teaching instruction requires teachers to have a clear understanding of listeningand some related theories. In order to investigate the effects of genre knowledge on listeningcomprehension, it is necessary to have a comprehensive review of the definitions of listening,different listening models, and genre theories including the definitions of genre, genre analysis,and genre-based teaching approach as well as the previous empirical studies in writing, readingand listening instruction.

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2.2 Definitions of Listening

Listening is one of the most frequently used language skills in everyone’s daily life, and itis the medium used by the listeners to communicate with the speakers, comprehend theinformation given by the speakers, and follow the discourse in which the speakers present theinformation. Traditionally, listening as well as reading was regarded as a “passive skill”.Listeners were considered to be simply passive processors who undertook some automaticsignal recognition exercises when acoustic signals were received by them and then constructedmeaning.However, as listening studies receiving more and more attention, many famous scholarsreject to regarding listening as a “passive skill”. William Littlewood stated that “the nature oflistening meant that learners should be encouraged to engage in an active process of listeningfor meaning, using not only the linguistic clues but also their non-linguistic knowledge”(William Littlewood, 1981). Joan Morley defined listening as “everything that impinges on thehuman processing which medicates between sound and the construction of meaning” (Morley,1991:88). Brown held the view that “In listening, what the listener wants to achieve is anadequate understanding of what the speaker said and what the speaker meant” (Brown, 1990:9).All these definitions of listening show that more and more scholars believe listening is an activeand conscious process, involving not only the speakers’ new information but the participation oflisteners’ background knowledge as well. Based on this view, Brown further explained that“when listening, the listeners are active searchers for meaning.

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Chapter Three Research Methodology.....21

3.1 Introduction ....21

3.2 Research Questions ....21

3.3 Participants .....21

3.4 Research Materials .....21

3.5 Control of Irrelevant Variables ....23

3.6 Research Procedure ....24

3.7 Research Methods ......25

3.8 Data Collection and Analysis.......25

3.9 Summary ........26

Chapter Four Results and Discussion .......27

4.1 Introduction ....27

4.2 Different Listening Comprehension on Different Genres......27

4.3 Factors Leading to the Differences ....30

4.4 The Effects of Genre Knowledge on Listening Comprehension........33

4.5 Summary ........41

Chapter Five Conclusion........42

5.1 Introduction ....42

5.2 Major Findings of the Study.........42

5.3 Implications and Suggestions.......43

5.4 Limitations and Suggestions for Further Studies .......46

5.5 Conclusion......47


Chapter Four Results and Discussion


4.1 Introduction

The present study aims to investigate the effects of applying genre knowledge to listeninginstruction, and after the teaching experiment has been done, test scores were collected andanalyzed by SPSS17.0, and answers to the oral interview questions were summarized as asupplement for the study. After a twelve-week teaching experiment, the expected aims havebeen achieved, and the results of the study will be stated, analyzed and discussed in thesequence of three research questions proposed in the last chapter. The first section analyzes thatwhat English majors’ performances on different genres of listening materials are, the secondpart lists three main factors influencing their listening comprehension, and the third part showsthe effects of genre knowledge on listening comprehension. The subjects of the present study were given three listening test through the 12 weeksteaching experiment, aiming to figure out what English majors’ performances on differentgenres of listening materials are. By comparing the scores that they get on each section of thetest paper in the three listening tests respectively, it can be found that the subjects have differentlistening comprehension on different genres of listening material. And this can be examinedfrom two different perspectives: English majors in control group have different listeningcomprehension on different genres of listening materials (comparison of the mean scores of thethree tested genres on three listening tests in CG, as shown in figure 1), and listeners inexperimental group have different listening comprehension on different genres of listeningmaterials (comparison of the mean scores of the three tested genres in three listening tests in EG,as shown in figure 2).


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Conclusion


Listening is one of the most frequently used language skills, and listening comprehensionwhich plays an important role in communication has been a focus of second language teachingfor many years in China.This experimental study is designed to investigate the effects of genre knowledge onlistening comprehension for English majors. The teaching experiment lasted for 12 weeks,involving three listening tests and an oral interview. By analyzing the scores collected from thelistening tests and students’ feedbacks to the oral interview questions, it can be concluded thatEnglish majors have different listening comprehension on different genres of listeningmaterials. Most of them have the best performance on conversations, and then is on statement,and the performance on news is always the worst. The present study also figured out that thefamiliarity with each genre structure and content, language features and different types ofquestions are the three main factors leading to the differences. Comparison of the mean scoreson pre-test and post-test indicates that genre knowledge is of great effectiveness on improvinglistening comprehension for English majors, and after the teaching experiment, students inexperimental group achieved the most significant improvement on news, and then is onconversations, however, the progress on statements is not so evident.Though much effort has been made for this study, there are still some limitations, owingto the limited time, conditions and the researcher’ academic knowledge, and the author willcontinue this research and try to make better in the future study.

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Reference (omitted)


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