七年级英语口语课间教学之合作学习实例研究 - 蜂朝网
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七年级英语口语课间教学之合作学习实例研究

时间: 2015-02-03 编号:sb201502031020 作者:蜂朝网
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文章摘要:
Studied done on cooperative learning have been mostly set in high middle schooland colleges. The thesis tends to make an investigation into the application ofcooperative learning in Year-seven\'s speaking classroom in Xi\'an Tie Yi Bin He Campusin Xi’an,Shaanxi.

Chapter 1 Introduction


1.1 Background

When it comes to using a language, we mean that the students are able to havesuccessful communication with others in English. It is acknowledged that the final aimof teaching a language is to enable all the students to use the language in the realsituations. Therefore, as for the junior school English teaching, the improvement ofstudents' English speaking ability is a necessary demand.However,the fact is that teachers and students pay little attention to Englishspeaking. Assumably,the reasons are as follows: first of all, most of the examinations,from routine tests to the high school entrance examination, contain no tests in speakingability. The teachers use all the time to explain the words, sentences and grammar. Thistraditional English teaching method is usually teacher-centered, so students miss theopportunities to develop speaking competence. Some teachers don't take Englishspeaking ability into account. Secondly, in China, most of the classes are of big size.Under this circumstance, the teacher cannot give students enough time and opportunityto practice oral English, which makes students lose interest in English. What is worse,students may feel anxious when speaking English,being afraid of making mistakes orfailing to make themselves understood.In order to put the students in the center of learning process, after 1992,the NewCurriculum Standards (2001) clearly demanded that the aim of English teaching is tobring up the ability of using the language in communication. The first task of Englishteaching in the New Curriculum Standards changes from “to have students master thebasic knowledge and skills" into "to inspire and bring up the students' English learninginterest,develop their ability of independent learning and cooperative spirit".

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1.2 Purposes and Significances

Studied done on cooperative learning have been mostly set in high middle schooland colleges. The thesis tends to make an investigation into the application ofcooperative learning in Year-seven's speaking classroom in Xi'an Tie Yi Bin He Campusin Xi’an,Shaanxi. By doing the research,it is aimed to find out the common factorsbetween cooperative learning and English spoken language teaching, %nd how theyaffect each other. It is assumed to help improve English spoken language teaching ofYear-seven students.However, whether cooperative learning can truly improve the Year-seven students,speaking ability still needs more practical evidence. So putting it into practice isnecessary and meaningful. First of all,on the side of theories,spoken English belongs tolanguage output and it is one part of the second language acquisition. How to teachspeaking is worth studying. What is more,cooperative learning provides students withmore opportunities to use the target language in a relatively more relaxed atmosphere.Thus students can listen and speak the target language in natural and interactivecontexts. Different members in each group will show their different opinions on thesame topic,and therefore the opportunities for students to listen and speak are increased.Besides,it can build up students' confidence in learning English. Some shy studentsmay gradually dare to open his or her mouth in their small groups and then perform infront of the whole class just because he or she can rehearse the answers with his or herteammates during the discussion period. According to the theory of Affective FilterHypothesis proposed by Krashen, the higher confidence and lower anxiety areimportant in foreign language learning, especially in speaking. Secondly, cooperativelearning provides more teaching and practicing forms in English teaching. For years,Chinese teachers have been bored about the traditional teaching method. And thestudents in new century have strong personalities, and they all have their own opinionsand dislike even hate the teacher controlling all the things in and out of class. Theyoften want to show themselves in the class. So the teacher can use cooperative activitiessuch as discussion,role play or debate to improve students' speaking ability in the waythat they are fond of.

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Chapter 2 Literature Review


2.1 Definition

Cooperation is the process to work together to accomplish shared goals. Duringthe process,each members effort contributes to the final success. Each member of thegroup succeeds together and fails together. They seek outcomes that are beneficial tothemselves and also to all the other group members (Brown, 1994).Cooperative learning is proposed based on the cooperation by many scholars. It isan approach that makes all the members work or leam together to reach their maximumeffect. Cooperative learning is well-known as collaborative learning or learning together,which is adopted in the modem education field. Some famous scholars gave theirdefinition of cooperative learning.Kagan (1990) gave his definition of cooperative learning. He claims thatcooperative learning is an approach to organize classroom activities into academic andsocial learning experiences. He states that students should be guided to know that thesuccess of every team member depends on the success of each other members. And ifone fails,they all do. This is called "sink-or-swim-together" ?As for Slavin (1995),another scholar,cooperative learning refers to instructionalmethods "in which students work in small groups to help one another leam academiccontent". He points out that in cooperative context,students are expected to makearguments and have discussion with each other and to help each other.

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2.2 Theories

Research on the social interdependence theory can be traced back to the earlytwentieth Century. The founder of Gestalt psychology has pointed out that the group hasinterdependence power which can change the whole group members. Lewin has carriedon the analysis to the view (Wang,2002). On the one hand,the interdependencebetween members of the group is the essence of a group. On the other hand,the internalunity between members of the group can achieve the goal through joint efforts.Lewin、friend Dodge proposed cooperation and competition theory in the late 40’sof twentieth Century which has a direct impact on the development of cooperativelearning. He thinks that in cooperative social context, individual performance shouldhave close connections with interdependence among all the group members.Dodge's student Johnson,with his brothers (1989) developed Dodge, theory, thewell-known social interdependence theory. Social interdependence (cooperation) is thepositive interaction between individuals, which can effectively encourage each otherand promote each other to study hard. In a group, if there is no interdependence (effort)there will be no interaction between individual, either.From the social interdependence theory,scholars conclude that the core theory ofcooperative learning is that when all the people gathered together for a common goaland work,they rely on the mutual solidarity to provide burst power. At the same time,the team cooperation can increase the contact among individuals.

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Chapter 3 Methodology........... 22

3.1 Subjects.......... 22

3.2 Instruments.......... 23

3.3 Procedures..........25

3.4 Data Analysis..........27

Chapter 4 Results and Discussion..........28

4.1 Results of Questionnaire and Discussion..........28

4.2 Results of Interviews and Discussion..........30

4.3 Results of Observation and Discussion..........31

4.4 Results of the Tests and Discussion..........32

Chapter 5 Conclusion..........33

5.1 Main Findings..........33

5.2 Implications..........35

5.3 Limitations..........37

5.4 Suggestions..........39


Chapter 4 Results and Discussion


4.1 Results of Questionnaire and Discussion

The questionnaire aims to see if students are satisfied with the current teachingmethod in English speaking classroom and whether they have motivations to adopt anew English speaking teaching method to improve their English speaking ability. Theresearcher tells students the detail and requirement. Students are asked to finish thequestionnaire based on their true feelings and situations without any unreal information.Students just need to finish the questionnaire, no signature is needed. The researchershows the results in the following table 4.1.1 and 4.1.2. The questionnaire is to find out the factors that affect the implementation ofcooperative learning in the English speaking classroom, including students attitudestowards cooperative learning and what they benefit from cooperative learning, such aswhen cooperative learning is used in English speaking classroom, if students encounterdifficulty, what kind of social skill they should use, how to build group reliance andaccountability and the like. We can also see this questionnaire as the feedback andevaluation of the students on the cooperative learning.


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Conclusion


Cooperative learning enhances the effectiveness of the English speaking, and whatis more important is that it helps to cultivate students' communicative competence. Thisthesis focuses on the implementation of the cooperative learning in the English speakingclassroom of Year Seven in Xi' an Tie Yi Middle School Bin He campus. Thequestionnaire, interview, observation and tests are adopted as the instrument. With thepurpose of finding out the factors that influence the effectiveness of the cooperativelearning and the methods that can facilitate the English speaking ability in thecooperative classroom. The researcher hopes that the results of the research can bringsome implications for Year Seven teachers in English speaking teaching. The other external factor isthe learning environment. As for the year seven English learners, communicativeenvironment can stimulate their desire to speak English. According to the results of thequestionnaire and the interviews, some students are aware that they are greatly affectedby the performance of their group members.

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Reference (omitted)


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