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英语毕业论文essay格式简要说明

时间: 2014-01-21 编号:sb201401211136 作者:蜂朝网
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文章摘要:
英语本科毕业论文essay要求格式说明:English thesis essay format a brief description.

字数: 论文3000-4500英文单词之间(约12—15页)

引语(包括例子)严格控制在三分之一以下.

引语(包括例子)都必须标明出处.

论文应该包括:

封面(学校统一的英文封面 详见格式示例)

英文摘要(Abstract 字数120-200个单词,采用第3人称撰写即the author或者this paper,切勿出现第一人称和第二人称的使用)

目录(Table of Contents)

正文(包括引言Introduction, 论文主体Body和结语Conclusion). 

尾注(Endnotes)( 如有必要,)

外文与中文参考书目(References)

参考书目部分注意事项:此部分须另起一页,英文部分编排在前,中文部分编排于后,以作者姓氏首字母顺序/按其姓氏首字母之拼音顺序排列,英文书名须用斜体。每条书目必须顶格写,回行时空两个或五个英语字母。参考书目累计不少于六本。

论文题目太长时,应该缩短,可加副标题,字数不应超过15 words

注释:Notes(如有必要)

若有尾注(endnotes),单独一页,放在参考书目"之前.

论文纸张A4(21x 29.7cm)

边距: 上下边距各为2.54厘米,左右各为3.17厘米,两端对齐

英语字体:Times New Roman

汉语字体:宋体

封面标题:小二或三号字体加粗居中(如果有副标题,副标题应在下一行居中)

封面副标题:三号字体加粗

封面其余部分四号字体不加粗

正文中标题:四号字体加粗,小标题小四号字体加粗

以下级别的标题,字体大小和正文一样,均为Times New Roman 小四号,正体。所有标题均左对齐。正文部分的所有标题,其序号及写法必须与目录中标题的序号及写法相一致。此外,正文中的标题应避免出现在页面的最后一行。

标题体系应该保持一致性,如下所示:

或:1  1.1  1.1.1  2  2.1  2.1.1  3  3.1  3.1.1……

或:I. II. III.  A. B. C.  1 2 3  1)2)3) a. b. c.……

注意:同级标题必须有两个以上,即有1就应有2,有Ⅰ就应有Ⅱ,有A就应有B,依次类推。

标题内容一般用词组形式而不用句子形式表达。同一篇论文中的标题,语言表达形式要统一。标题一般采用名词词组形式,也可采用动词不定式、动名词、动词的现在分词、形容词或介词等词组形式。但无论采用哪种形式,在同一级标题中必须统一,不可几种形式混用。

标题中词的首字母大小写一般有三种处理方法。传统的方法是,标题中的实词首字母都大写,虚词的首字母不大写,但多音节的介词可例外,又介词若在行首其首字母必须大写。另一种是标题中所有的字母都大写,但此法我们的论文中不采用。还有一种现在通行的方法是标题中第一个词的首字母大写,其余的都不大写,当然专有名词例外。

正文字体大小:Times New Roman小四号字体,行距:1.5

引文字体大小:Times New Roman小四号字体, 行距:单倍

注意:本科毕业论文一律不使用页眉。

正文部分须知:

每一段开头缩进五个英文字符的位置, 即于第六个字符开始打字,段与段之间不空行.

页码从封面算起,标阿拉伯数字于每页的最下方中间处,封面不标页码.

正文格式: 

正文字体一般为Times New Roman 小四号,正体,行距为1.5倍。但有时为了把图表等放在一页内,或为了避免标题出现在一页的最后一行,可以对部分段落作适当的行距调整,如缩小行距,调整为单倍或1.25倍行距;或扩大行距,调整为1.75倍甚至2倍行距。

文章中每段文字不能少于3-4行,太少的文字不能单独成段。


英语论文的文中引述 


正确引用作品原文或专家、学者的论述是写好英语论文的重要环节;既要注意引述与论文的有机统一,即其逻辑性,又要注意引述格式 (即英语论文参考文献)的规范性。引述别人的观点,可以直接引用,也可以间接引用。无论采用何种方式,论文作者必须注明所引文字的作者和出处。目前美国学术界通行的做法是在引文后以圆括弧形式注明引文作者及出处。现针对文中引述的不同情况,将部分规范格式分述如下。

   

整体要求:

凡论文正文中引用他人文献的,都必须在有关之处用圆括号作文内夹注,同时该引文出处的详细信息必须出现在参考文献内。

文内夹注的基本格式为:(作者姓氏 出版年份: 文献页码),圆括号内的中文姓名采用全部姓名,若该中文姓名以汉语拼音形式出现,则和英文姓名同样处理,在圆括号内只写姓的汉语拼音即可。

标点格式:在“作者姓氏”和“出版年份”之间空一格;“出版年份”后加冒号,空一格,然后是文献页码。如用中文冒号的,后面不用空格。

中文作者姓名汉语拼音的写法:按汉语习惯,姓在前,名在后。姓和名拼音的首字母大写;属于双名的双名连写,中间不用连字号,如Zhu Yongsheng。

使用引号的直接引文需标页码;不使用引号的转述引用,引自某一部分的,也需标出该部分所在的页码。只有在转述引用文献中的某个概念或思想而又无法确定引自哪一页或哪几页时,才可不标页码。


具体要求及示例说明:

一位作者的一篇文献,姓氏未出现在正文内,姓氏应标出,如:

Human beings have been described as “symbol-using animals” (Burke 1966: 3).

This point has been argued before (Frye 2001: 178-85).

注意:句号在括号后面。

一位作者的一篇文献,姓氏出现在正文内的,夹注内不重复姓氏,如:

Frye has argued this point elsewhere (2001: 178-85). 

Yule (1996b: 100) also stated that …

同一作者同一年内出版的多篇文献,在不同夹注的相同年份后加“a”、“b”等,以示区别。加“a”、“b”等的依据是该作者同一年出版的文献在“参考文献”中按出版月份排列的前后位置,即排在前面的加“a”,排在后面的加“b”,以此类推。如:

For example, when expressing an opinion a woman would probably say: Well, em, I think that golf is kind of boring, don’t you? (Yule 1996a: 89).

Yule (1996b: 100) also stated that …

夹注中包含同一作者的多篇文献,各文献之间用逗号隔开:

Halliday stated (1985a, 1985b) that …

夹注中包含不同作者的多篇文献,各作者之间用分号隔开:

Foreign researchers (Halliday and Hasan 1985a, 1985b; Schiffrin 1987; Hubbard 1989) are among those who contribute greatly in this field.

6. 多位作者的一篇文献:

Smythe and Jones (2001) found …

… as has been shown (Smythe and Jones 2001) … 

This procedure means that “after a relatively fast translation of the whole text, the translator should spend some time reading through the whole TLT and make corrections and improvements until he or she is quite satisfied with it” (谭卫国and蔡龙权 2005: 36-7).

Modern literary studies have their origin in classic studies (Graff et al. 1995: 19-35). 

注意:作者为两人的,两人姓氏中间加and;作者为三人以上的,在第一位作者的姓氏后加上et al.,省略其余作者姓氏。也可列出全部作者的姓氏,如(Yule, Graff and Boswell 1880)。作者姓氏之间用逗号,最后一位作者姓氏前用“and”。无论用哪种方法,全文要统一。

7. 转引,即引自第二手资料,加“quoted in”:

Samuel Johnson admitted that Edmund Burke was an “extraordinary man” (quoted in Boswell 1980: 450).

注意:Boswell的有关信息必须出现在参考文献内。


引证补充说明:

    

1.若引文不足三行,则可将引文有机地融合在论文中。如: The divorce of Arnold's personal desire from his inheritance results in “the familiar picture of Victorian man alone in an alien universe”(Roper9).  

这里,圆括弧中的Roper为引文作者的姓(不必注出全名);阿拉伯数字为引文出处的页码(不要写成p.9);作者姓与页码之间需空一格,但不需任何标点符号;句号应置于第二个圆括弧后。 

2.被引述的文字如果超过三行,则应将引文与论文文字分开,如:较长的引文:40个英语词以上的引文,单独为一段,左边缩进2个Tab键的距离,右边也缩进相同的距离。字体为斜体,字号不变。也可以字体不变,但字号小一号。下例所示: 

The European colonials sought to enforce systematically the acculturation of the natives:

The casualness of the fur trading type of contacts could no longer be tolerated. Hence, with the arrival of the missionaries and their Christian ethic the task of converting the natives began, and peaceful penetration entered a new phase, based upon an institutionalized mode of cultural dismemberment. (La Violette 1961: 302-3)

注意:单独成段的引文不用引号,文内夹注紧随其后(即不换行)。引文结束的句号在括号之前,这一点跟较短的引文不同。

3.如需在引文中插注,对某些词语加以解释,则要使用方括号(不可用圆括弧)。如: 

Dr.Beaman points out that“he [Charles Darw in] has been an important factor in the debate between evolutionary theory and biblical creationism”(9).   

值得注意的是,本例中引文作者的姓已出现在引导句中,故圆括弧中只需注明引文出处的页码即可。  

4.如果拟引用的文字中有与论文无关的词语需要删除,则需用省略号。如果省略号出现在引文中则用三个点,如出现在引文末,则用四个点,最后一点表示句号,置于第二个圆括弧后(一般说来,应避免在引文开头使用省略号);点与字母之间,或点与点之间都需空一格。如: Mary Shelley hated tyranny and“looked upon the poor as pathetic victims of the social system and upon the rich and highborn...with undisguised scorn and contempt...”(Nitchie 43). 

5.若引文出自一部多卷书,除注明作者姓和页码外,还需注明卷号。如: 

Professor Chen Jia's A History of English Literature aimed to give Chinese readers“a historical survey of English literature from its earliest beginnings down to the 20thcentury”(Chen,1:i).  

圆括弧里的1为卷号,小写罗马数字i为页码,说明引文出自第1卷序言(引言、序言、导言等多使用小写的罗马数字标明页码)。此外,书名 A History of English Literature 下划了线;规范的格式是:书名,包括以成书形式出版的作品名(如《失乐园》)均需划线,或用斜体字;其他作品,如诗歌、散文、短篇小说等的标题则以双引号标出,如“To Autumn”及前面出现的“Democratic Vistas”等。   

6.如果英语论文中引用了同一作者的两篇或两篇以上的作品,除注明引文作者及页码外,还要注明作品名。如: 

Bacon condemned Platoas“an obstacle to science”(Farrington, Philosophy 35). 

Farrington points out that Aristotle's father Nicomachus, a physician, probably trained his son in medicine(Aristotle 15).  

这两个例子分别引用了Farrington的两部著作,故在各自的圆括弧中分别注出所引用的书名,以免混淆。两部作品名均为缩写形式(如书名太长,在圆括弧中加以注明时均需使用缩写形式),其全名分别为 Founder of Scientific Philosophy 及 The Philosophy of Francis Baconand Aristotle。

7. 连续引用同一文献,用“ibid.”标出,表示出处同上。如:(Ibid.: 15),表示与刚才引用的文献相同,但页码不同。页码也相同的只标 (Ibid.)。要注意的是,连续引用不同于重复引用。在多次引用同一文献时,中间没有对其他文献的引用,才属于连续引用,才能使用“ibid.”。 

8.评析诗歌常需引用原诗句,其引用格式如下例所示。 

When Beowulf dives upwards through the water and reaches the surface,“The surging waves, great tracts of water, / were all cleansed...”(1.1620-21). 

这里,被引用的诗句以斜线号隔开,斜线号与前后字母及标点符号间均需空一格;圆括弧中小写的1是line的缩写;21不必写成1621。如果引用的诗句超过三行,仍需将引用的诗句与论文文字分开(参见本部分第2点内容)。

9.文学作品的文内夹注:引文来自诗歌等韵文时,可以篇次和行次代替标注中的页码;引文来自剧本等文献时,以幕次、场次和行次代替页码。


参考文献说明:


参考文献部分列在正文后面,有尾注的列在尾注后面,另起一页。页面上端空一行(小四号),第二行以References为标题,居中,字体为Times New Roman 四号,粗体。标题与正文之间空一行(小四号)。正文字体为Times New Roman小四号,正体。每段悬挂缩进,取默认值,即2个中文字符或一个Tab键的距离。

参考文献的条目,应包括在论文中引用过的全部文献,以及虽然未在论文中引用但对于撰写论文确实起了参考作用的文献,但是不能罗列同正文没有关系或虽有关系但自己并没有直接或间接参阅过的文献。

网上文献慎用。

排列顺序:外文文献在前,以姓氏的首字母为序;中文文献在后,以姓氏的拼音为序(中文书目作者姓氏及书目名称等以中文书写)。同一作者的文献,按出版年份的先后为序;同一作者同一年出版的文献,按月份为序排列。

文献类型标识码  (仅供参考,不做强制要求)

  在参考文献的文献名后加文献类型标识码(置于方括号内)。以下是常用的标识码和对应的文献类型:

  纸质文献

  A (article from an anthology) 论文集中析出的文献

  C (collected papers)     论文集;会议录

  D (dissertation)     学位论文

  J (journal article)    期刊文章

  M (monograph)     专著;普通图书

  N (newspaper article)     报纸文章

  P (patent)    专利

  R (report)    报告

  S (specification)    标准

  Z    其他未说明的文献类型

  电子文献

  CP (computer program)     计算机程序

  DB (database)     数据库

  EB (electronic bulletin board)     电子公告

  CD (CD-Rom)    光盘

  DK (disk)    磁盘

  MT (magnetic tape)     磁带

  OL (online)    联机文献

  组配标记

  C/OL     网上会议录

  CP/DK     磁带软件

  DB/MT     磁带数据库

  DB/OL     联机网上数据库

  EB/OL     网上电子公告

  J/OL    网上期刊

  M/CD    光盘图书

  N/OL    网上报纸

参考文献的书写格式 

参考文献包含的基本项目有:作者姓名.文献名.出版地:出版商,出版年.其它项目见后面的举例说明。

作者为多人的,无论是两人还是两人以上,必须写上全部姓名。

作者姓名的写法:

第一作者的姓和名要颠倒,姓(last name)在前,名(first name)在后,中间用逗号隔开。姓必须写全。名可缩写,也可写全,以写全为宜。如有中间名(middle name)的,中间名可以缩写。作者项最后以句号结束。中文作者姓和名不颠倒,按照中文习惯书写。

第一作者以后的作者,姓和名均不颠倒。姓要写全,名可写全,也可缩写,以写全为宜。

作者项以外的姓名,即出现在后面的姓名,姓和名均不颠倒。姓必须写全,名以写全为宜,也可缩写。

文献名称的写法:

书名(包括期刊名称):用斜体

书的主标题:第一个词和各实词的首字母大写;副标题:除了第一个词和专有名词的首字母大写外,其余均小写。

文章名(包括论文名称):不用斜体,也不用引号。

文章的标题,无论是主标题还是副标题,除了第一个词和专有名词的首字母大写外,其余均小写。

说明:中文文献,无论是书名还是文章名,均不用斜体,不用书名号,也不用引号。

参考文献各项之间的标点符号:

作者项后跟句号,文献名后跟句号,出版地后跟冒号,出版商后跟逗号,出版年后跟句号。

标点符号后的空格:英文标点符号后一般空一格。破折号、连字符号、撇号(后跟“s”)、斜线符号例外,后面不空格。两种标点符号连用时,中间不空格,如“K.,”和“et al.,”等。

每条文献均以英文句号结束。


各种文献的著录格式举例如下:


专著或一般图书,在书名后、句号前加[M] 

例1:一位作者:

Gruen, Erich S. The Image of Rome [M]. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1969. 

说明:作者项后跟句号。[M]置于书名后、句号前。

例2:两位作者:第一作者的姓名后加逗号,加“and”,然后是第二作者的姓名,后加句号。

Okuda, Michael, and Denise Okuda. Star Trek Chronology: The history of the future [M]. New York: Pocket, 1993. 

说明:该文献的作者项也可写成:Okuda, M., and D. Okuda.

例3:两位以上作者:各作者姓名之间加逗号,最后一位作者姓名之前加“and”,之后加句号。

Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language [M]. London: Longman, 1985.

说明:该文献的作者项也可写成:Quirk, R., S. Greenbaum, G. Leech, and J. Svartvik. 

例4:编辑的书:在编辑姓名后加逗号,再加“ed.”,编者为多人时,加“eds.”。

Duff, A. M., ed. A Literary History of Rome [C]. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1960.

说明:ed.意为editor。

例5:译作:在书名后加“Trans.”和译者姓名。

Cicero, Marcus Tullius. De Oratore [M]. Trans. J. S. Watson. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1986. 

  说明:Trans.意为Translated by。  

例6:有作者、译者和编辑的书:

Dostoevsky, Feodor. Crime and Punishment [M]. Trans. Jessie Coulson. Ed. George Gibian. New York: Norton, 1964.

说明:Ed.意为Edited by。

例7:再版的书,在书名后标出第几版:

Abrams, M. H., et al., eds. Norton Anthology of English Literature [Z]. 4th ed. 2 vols. New York: Norton, 1979.

说明:在第一位作者后用“et al.”,是因为在这里M. H. Abrams为general editor,而其他的编者或姓名不明,或为节省篇幅而省略。此例中的ed.意为edition。

论文集,在书名后加[C]

例8:一位编者:

Frye, N., ed. Sound and Poetry [C]. New York: Columbia University Press, 1957. 

例9:多位编者:

Biguenet, J., and R. Schulte, eds. The Craft of Translation [C]. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

论文集中的文章,在文章名后加[A]

例10:

James, Nancy E. Two sides of paradise: The Eden myth according to Kirk and Spock [A]. Spectrum of the Fantastic. Ed. Donald Palumbo. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1988. 219-23.

说明:文章名不用斜体,也不用引号。论文集名称用斜体。“Ed.”后是论文集编者的姓名,不颠倒写,后接句号。219-23为文章在书中的页码。

期刊文章,在文章名后加[J]

例11:

Wilcox, Rhonda V. Shifting roles and synthetic women in Star Trek: The next generation [J]. Studies in Popular Culture 13.2 (1991): 53-65. 

说明:文章名不用斜体,也不用引号。期刊名用斜体。期刊名后无标点,空一格后为卷次号(此例中的“13.2”意为第13卷第2期),圆括号内为出版年,冒号后面为文章在期刊内的页码。 

报纸文章,在文章名后加[N]

例12:

Di Rado, A. Trekking through College: Classes explore modern society using the World of Star Trek [N]. Los Angeles Times 15 Mar. 1995: A3. 

说明:Los Angeles Times为报纸名,用斜体。15 Mar. 1995为发行日期(月份的英文单词不缩写的后面不加点),A3为版次。

注意日期的格式:英式英语表示日期的顺序是“日、月、年”,美式英语则是“月、日、年”,如(文章中的写法):2nd March, 1996 (英);March 2, 1996 (美)。在参考文献中我们采用英式英语的格式,如:15 Mar. 1995。

词典、百科全书等工具书,或其他未说明的文献类型,在书名后加[Z]

例13:

Asher, E. The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (vol.10) [Z]. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1994.

学位论文,在论文名称后加[D]

例14:未出版的学位论文

Almeida, D. M. Father's participation of family work: Consequences for father's stress and father-child relations [D]. Unpublished master's dissertation, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 1990.

说明:未出版的学位论文,论文名称不用斜体。论文名称后写“Unpublished doctor’s / master’s dissertation”,后接学校名称、学校所在地区和答辩通过的日期。

例15:已出版的学位论文

Ames, B. Dreams and Painting: A case study of the relationship between an artist's dreams and painting [D]. Doctor’s dissertation, University of Virginia, 1978. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1979.

说明:已出版的学位论文,论文名称用斜体,论文名称后写“Doctor’s / master’s dissertation”,后接学校名称。最后是出版地、出版商和出版年。

网上文章,在文章名后加[OL]

例16:有作者和网站名,需要写的项目有:作者、文章名、网站、上网日期、网址。

Lynch, Tim. DSN trials and tribbleations review [OL]. Psi Phi: Bradley’s Science Fiction Club. 1996. Bradley University. Retrieved 8 Oct. 1997. <http://www.steelbee.net/baogao/c651l>. 

说明:Retrieved 后的“8 Oct. 1997”为上网获取文献资料的日期;< > 内为网址。 

例17:无作者和无网站名,以文章名开始,必需有上网日期和网址。

IELTS: Information for candidates 2006 [OL]. Retrieved 9 January 2006. 

网络期刊,在文章名后加[J/OL]

例18:

Zhong, W. H. An overview of translation in China: Practice and theory [J/OL]. Translation Journal Vol. 7. Retrieved 6 April 2006.

说明:Translation Journal 为网络期刊名,Vol. 7为卷号,加句号以结束期刊名项。后面是上网日期和网址。

论文集中的文章,文章名为英文,书名为中文,在文章名后加[A]

例19:Jackobson, R. On linguistic aspects of translation [A]. 西方翻译理论精选. 申雨平编. 北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2002.

中文专著和一般图书,在书名后加[M]

例20:一位作者

方梦之. 译学辞典 [M]. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,2004.  

例21:多位作者

朱贤智,林崇德. 思维发展心理学 [M]. 北京:北京师范大学出版社,1986.

说明:作者为多人的,全部要著录,作者之间加逗号。

中文期刊文章,在文章名后加[J]

例22:

罗一. 研究生英语论文中连接副词使用情况调查 [J]. 解放军外国语学院学报 2003 (1):59-62.

说明:2003 (1) 指2003年第1期,后面为页码。文章名与期刊年份之间空一格,中间不用逗号。

中文词典,在书名后加[Z]

例23:

张道真. 现代英语用法词典 [Z]. 上海:上海译文出版社,1983.

集体作者的书

例24:单位名作为作者(英文)

National Research Council. China and Global Change: Opportunities for collaboration [M]. Washington Acad., 1992.

例25:单位名作为作者(中文)

中华人民共和国教育部. 英语课程标准 (实验稿) [M]. 上海:上海教育出版社,2001.

无作者的书、文章或其它材料

例26:书,以书名开始

Encyclopedia of Indiana [Z]. New York: Somerset, 1993.

例27:报纸文章,以文章名开始

Cigarette sales fall 30% as California tax rises [N]. New York Times 14 Sept. 1999: A17.

例28:小册子,以名称开始

Street Map of Ancient Rome [Z]. New York: Random, 1968.


某些标点符号的用法

英式英语和美式英语在引号使用上的不同

对于引语等,英式英语通常使用单引号,美式英语通常使用双引号。

英式英语:

She likes saying ‘I will do my best.’

美式英语:

She likes saying “I will do my best.”

美式英语在引号内再用引号时,外面是双引号,里面是单引号;而英式英语则相反,单引号在外,双引号在内。如:

美式英语:

The girl told her mother, “I heard my father say, ‘Good,’ and then saw him go out.”

英式英语:

The girl told her mother, ‘I heard my father say, “Good”, and then saw him go out.’

无论使用美式英语还是英式英语,在整个论文中要统一。在一般情况下我们主张使用中国人所熟悉的格式,即外面用双引号,里面用单引号。

引号和逗号、句号连用时美式标点与英式标点的区别

引号和逗号、句号连用时,美式英语和英式英语的用法也有所不同。美式英语,逗号和句号不管在什么情况下都放在引号里面;别的标点符号,如果是引文的一部分,就放在引号以内,否则放在引号外面。英式英语,不管是什么标点符号,都要根据该标点是否属于引文的一部分来决定是放在引号里面还是外面。在这一点上,英式英语跟中文习惯是一致的。举例如下,请注意黑体部分:

美式英语:

[The spectacles] were her state pair, the pride of her heart, and were built for “style,” not service …  (摘自The Adventures of Tom Sawyer开头部分。)

如果用英式英语书写,则是:

[The spectacles] were her state pair, the pride of her heart, and were built for ‘style’, not service …

不管使用哪一种标点,重要的是全文要统一。对于该标点的用法,在一般情况下我们主张使用和中文习惯一致的英式标点格式。

缩写符号的用法

一般说来,单词的缩写形式后面要加缩写符号(即英语的句号)。如No.,U.K.,i.e.等等。但在英式英语中,一些常见的缩写形式如:Dr,Mr,Mrs后通常不加缩写符号“.”;而在美式英语中,这些缩写形式后面都要加缩写符号。无论使用哪一种形式,全文要统一。

破折号的写法

在中文里使用中文破折号,但在英文里不要使用中文破折号的一半来代替,如“This is the book―my book”中的半个中文破折号就应避免。在英文里使用破折号,可以在某个词后不空格,连续键入两个英文连字号(hyphen),然后不空格接着打下一个词,该两个连字号会自动结合成破折号,获得下面显示的效果:

  打字: This is the book--my book.

  效果: This is the book—my book.

上例中的英文破折号位于英文字母的腰间,而不象中文破折号位于英文字母的“肩部”。

对于书名、文章名等,何时使用斜体,何时使用引号?

在论文正文中,书名用斜体(不能用中文书名号,也不用引号)。期刊名、长篇小说名、长诗名、报纸名的写法和书名相同,也用斜体。文章名(包括书中的文章和期刊中的文章)、短篇小说名、短诗名,用双引号(不用斜体)。

在参考文献部分,书名用斜体,但文章名即不用斜体,也不用引号。  

省略号的写法

在论文的英文部分需要省略时必须使用英文省略号,不能使用中文省略号。英文省略号是三点“…”,而不是中文的六点“……”;英文省略号在一行的底线部,而不是腰部。

请注意以下几点:

(1)如果省略部分在句子中间,省略号前后都是文字,则省略号前后均需空一格,如:

You mean ... I ... uh ... we have a test today?(省略号前后均空一格)

(2)如果省略部分在句子末尾,要写成四点。如:

He wrote: “The theory accounts for the relationship between the different elements of a text….” 或 “Ellipses really are easy to use…. Furthermore, you’ll look more intelligent if you use them correctly.” 

在此两例中,紧跟在“text”和“use”之后的一点是句号,表示此前句子已完整结束,其后三点是省略号。

再如:This is .... 

在此例中,前三点为省略号,与“is”空一格,表示此句未完而有省略,第四点为句号。

省略号与其他标点合用的情况主要有以下几种:“…,”“,…”“…?”“?...”“…!”“!...”

此外,美式的省略号与英式的有区别,美式的三个点之间有空格,为“. . .”,英式的没有。我们一般采用英式的省略号。

(3)如果省略部分为散文文体的整个段落或若干段落,在一行内一般用十二个小点表示省略,此行单独成段,行首如段首需空格。如省略部分为诗歌的一行或数行或一个诗节或若干诗节,则需用一行与诗行相仿长度的点表示省略,如:

The wind so swift, the sky so steep, sad gibbons cry;

  Water so clear ad sand so white, backward birds fly.

   …………………………………………………

  Living in hard times, at my forested hair I pine;

  Pressed by poverty, I give up my cup of wine.

方括号的一种用法

如需对引文中的某项内容作必要的说明,可使用方括号。方括号表明其中的内容为说明性文字,不属于原文,而是论文作者自己加的。如:

Why she would hang on him [Hamlet’s father] 

As if increase of appetite had grown

By what it fed on….

在上面这个例子中,[Hamlet’s father] 是对him的说明,便于读者明白him指的是谁。又如:

Many readers have taken seriously Tennyson's exhortation “[t]o strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield”.

在上面这个例子中,[t]o表明原文里用的是To,这里为了使句子合乎语法,论文作者把大写T改产了小写t。再如:

“[O]nly those who have never tried it for a week or two,” writes Robertson Davies, “can suppose that the pursuit of knowledge does not demand a strength and determination, a resolve not to be beaten, that is a special kind of energy.” 

在上面这个例子中,[O]nly表明原文里用的是only,这里为了使句子合乎语法,论文作者把小写o改成了大写O。

  

打印

论文终稿用计算机Word文档打印在A4纸上,页边距取默认值,即上下各为2.54厘米,左右各为3.17厘米,两端对齐,行间距一般为1.5倍,单面打印。


毕业论文参考格式示例:


Analysis of the Distortion of Heathcliff’s Humanity                                in Wuthering Heights

                                                                              By 

                  Mit Ven                                                                                                

A Thesis Presented to the School of Continuing Education

Xi’ an International Studies University

As Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

For the Degree of                                                  

Bachelor of Arts

May,  4th,  2008 

 

                Class__________

                Grade__________

                      Advisor__________



                Abstract


Wuthering Height, Emily Bronte’s only novel, is one of the great curiosities, as it is one of the greatest masterpieces of literature. It was published in 1847 and people did not understand why the author created such a scoundrel protagonist—Heathcliff, for a long time. Not until 1950s did it begin to be highly valued. The main idea of this novel is concerned with love and hatred. Undoubtedly, this love must have no result. Heathcliff’s humiliation and misery prompt him to spend most of the rest of his life seeking revenge on Hindley, his beloved Catherine, and their respective children (Hareton and young Catherine). However, love passed away, Heathclff could only regain what he lost in the after life. This thesis will analyze Heathcliff’s complicated and mysterious life to explore the distortion of his humanity.


Table of Contents


1.Introduction………………………………………………………….4

2.The Causes for Heathcliff’s Distortion………………………………4

  2.1Heathcliff’s Personal Background……………………………….4

  2.2Injustic of  Society……………………………………………...5

  2.3Blow of the Betrayed Love………………………………………6

3.The Manifestation of Heathcliff’s Distortion………………………...7

  3.1Merciless Revenge………………………………………………..8

  3.2Sadistic Abuse…………………………………………………….8

4.The Result of Heathcliff’s Distortion…………………………………9

  4.1Destructiveness to Other Character……………………………….9

  4.2Self-destructiveness of His Own Life…………………………….10

5.Conclusion…………………………………………………………….11

References………………………………………………………………12

                               

再举一例层次细节较复杂的情况

Table of Contents


1.Introduction………………………………………………………………………….4

2.Problems Students Face in English Learning ……………………………………4

  2.1 Impractical Learning Motivation…………………………………..………...4

  2.5 Unbalanced Learning Emotion……………………………………………..6

3.An Introduction to Lump-Reorganizing Victory Learning Method……..6

  3.1 Introduction…………………………………………………..……………..6

  3.2 Lump-Reorganizing Learning……………………………………..…….….7

     3.2.1 Detailing Learning Object …………………………………………….7

     3.2.4 Learning Scientifically……………………………….……………...8

     3.2.5 Collecting Learning Intention …………………………………………9

  3.3 Victory Learning……………………………………………….…………...9

     3.3.1 Accelerated Learning………………………………………………..…9

     3.3.3 Victory Learning……………………………………............…………10

4.A Brief Introduction to English Intensive Training………………………...……10

5.English Intensive Training under Lump-Reorganizing Victory Learning Method....................................................................................................................11

  5.1Introduction………………………………………………….………………..11

  5.4 Results of English Intensive Training……………………………..………14

     5.4.1 Effects of English Intensive Training ……………………………...14

     5.4.2 Something ………………………………………………………….14

6.Conclusion………………………………………………………….……………..15

References…………………………………………………………………..…….16

注意:此处的目录格式仅是层次细节较复杂一类的缩影演示,为了使这一类型完整显示在同一页上,字号特地采用了5号字,这与论文原本要求字号不符,请大家不要效仿,一切依毕业论文格式简要说明提示为准。


1.Introduction


Wuthering Heights is regarded one of the most popular and famous novels in English literature. This is the only one novel that Emily Bronte (1818—1848) left to us. It is hard to find the letters or diaries to help us understand her creative ideas, so, it is very difficult to understand and easy to get misled.

Emily Bronte lived an eccentric, closely guarded life. Her father worked as a church rector, and her aunt, who raised the Bronte children after their mother died, was deeply religious. Emliy Bronte did not take to her aunt’s Christian fervor; in fact, she was deeply influenced by mysticism of cosmology and soul view. She treated human religion coldly and worshiped eternal spirit of nature. The Brontes lived in Haworth, a Yorkshire village in the midst of the moors. These wild, desolate plain—later the setting of Wuthering Height—made up Emily’s daily environment, and she lived among them her entire life. Charlotte Bronte once commented on Emily Bronte’s life, “My sister’s disposition was not naturally gregarious; circumstances favored and fostered her tendency to seclusion; except to go to church or take on the hills, she rarely crossed the threshold of home. Though her feeling for the people around was benevolent, intercourse with them she never sought; nor, with very few exceptions, ever experienced. And yet she knew them.” It is common-place to say that she is sphinx-like in her remoteness, “Stronger than a man, simpler than a child, her nature stood alone.”

Wuthering Heights is an extraordinary novel. From the social point of view, it is  a story about a poor man, abused, betrayed and distorted by his social betters because he is a poor nobody. As a love story, the novel is one of the most moving ones since the passion between Heathcliff and Catherine Earnshaw proves to be the most intense, the most beautiful and at the same time most horrible, ever to be found possible in human beings. Emily Bronte’s novel was, from the first, acknowledged as a work of 

strange power and energy, and was also found to be dangerously “excessive”: too much passion and too much violence. That is why most of the Victorian readers found 

the book shocking and inappropriate in its depiction of passionate, ungoverned love and cruelty. This novel’s literary value is confirmed, the critics will face an inevitable mission – that is, how to recognize Heathcliff from a different angle and liberate him from the evil image. Therefore, this thesis will put this love tragedy on a broad back ground to analyze the distortion of human nature and illustrate Heathcliff’s complicated personal world.


2.The Causes for Heathcliff’s Distortion

   

Heathcliff made his whole life to avenge himself on those people who made his life miserable. He has lost his human nature completely. However, this is not an individual fault. There are complicated reasons caused Heathcliff’s distortion. They include discrimination, oppression, vanity, and betrayed exhausted his energy. Especially when Catherine decided to marry Edger, he lost his ultimate spiritual prop. His distortion is mixed with love and hatred, struggle and suppression, purity and utility. Heathcliff becomes daily more notable for savage sullenness and ferocity.

2.1. Heathcliff’s Personal Background

Heathcliff’s personal background is the origin of his distortion.The discrimination of his humble status is sure to break down his life and distort his humanity.

Heathcliff is a homeless orphan on the street of Liverpool, the poor environment which predicts his fate. When Emily wrote this novel in the 1840s, the English economy was severely depressed, and the conditions of the factory workers in industrial areas like Liverpool were so appalling that upper and middle classes feared violent revolt. Thus, many of the more affluent members of society behold these workers with a mixed of sympathy and fear. 

In literature, the smoky, threatening, miserable factory-towns were often represented in religious terms, and compared tohell. With this background, Heathcliff, of course, is frequently compared to a demon by the other characters in the book.

By accident, Mr. Earnshaw and Catherine brought Heathcliff back to Wuthering Heights. When he arrives at the home, Mrs. Earnshaw is ready to fling him out of doors: she does fly up, asking how he could bring that gypsy brat in to the house, when they have their own brains to feed and fend for.  What does he mean to do with the child, and whether he is mad? The children refuse to share bed with the orphan, or even in their room. The servant also feels the offence of his invasion. At the very beginning, Heathcliff breeds bad feeling in the house.

However, Heathcliff is a normal human, he also has all kinds of normal human’s physical and spiritual needs.  Just because he sprang from obscurity, he lost all of these rights. He lives in hatred and cannot liberate himself from this miserable situation. Hindley hates him, the servant plagues him, and the mistress never puts in a word on his behalf when she sees him wronged. After Hindley controls the family, Heathcliff becomes powerless thoroughly. Hindley drives him to the servant, deprives him of the curate. At last, he is even forbidden to talk with Catherine. He has tried to make himself decent. He dreams that he has light hair, and a fine skin. He tells Nelly that he wishes that he is dressed and behaved as well as, and has a chance of being rich as Edger will be. He even obeys Nelly’s advice and shows his amiable humor. But just like Heathcliff himself has said, “I do – and that cannot help me to them. ” His personal background is a fixed reality, which nobody can change. He is marked as the lower class. Because of his lower personal background, he loses all of his happiness. He leaves Wuthering Heights, not to escape, but to find the way to pay his enemies back. He says, “I do not care how long I wait, if I can do it at last.” 

2.2. Injustice of Society   

Heathcliff is fated to his circumstances. He cannot change the reality, However, a gentleman adopts him. Therefore, he inevitably has the desire to be a respectable man.


6. Conclusion

   

The story of Wuthering Heights begins when Heathcliff is brought into the Earnshaw family and ends with the marriage of the second generation. I t is an exciting story, full of the themes of human passions, marriages, birth, and death. The dangerous, brooding, and cold Heathcliff impress the readers deeply. Heathcliff’s love destroys himself and the happiness of the two generations. However, this is not only a tragedy of love, but also a tragedy of the whole human world. Everyone should be blamed, for Heathcliff’s weapons, which he uses against the Earnshaws and the Lintons are their own weapons of money, and arranged marriage.

But no matter what Heathcliff has done, he cannot save Catherine’s life and his love. He will be finally tired of the game. It is meaningless. He decided to choose death to unite with his love in the moor. At last, Harton and young Catherine are to be engaged to be married, promising an end to the cycle of revenge. Everything turns to peace. The distortion is ended with the forgiveness and the humanity is restored.

This story enlightened us that hatred and revenge could bring distortion of humanity. People must learn to forgive his enemies. Only love itself can save love. Love is an eternal subject to the all humanity; love can defeats the hatred finally; love awake the distortion of human nature; love means everything!

               

References


 [1] Belsey, Catherine. Critical practice. London; Methwen,1980

 [2] Emily, Bronte. Wuthering Heights. Yili People’s Press, 2001

 [3] Kavanagh, JamesH. Reading literature, Emily Bronte. Basil Blackwell, 1985

 [4] Marsh, Nicholas. Emily Bronte: wuthering Heights, St. Martin’s press, 1999

 [5] 艾米莉·勃朗特. 呼啸山庄. 包小强译. 内蒙古出版社, 2001

[6] 平. 爱和恨都是生命在燃烧—讨论呼啸山庄中的希克厉. 外国文学研究, 1992

[7] 袁若娟, 呼啸山庄的主旋律: 人性的扭曲与复归. 外国文学研究, 1989


1. Introduction 

   

   Three years ago, I have started my own English training school----“Dream Crazy English Training Center”, and I have been teaching in the school. In my teaching, I’ve found some problems, especially the problem that some of my students are not interested in speaking English. I’ve told them time and again the importance of oral English and urged them to take an active part in oral work. However, their interest in speaking English does not seem to be enhanced. Since taking the English courses in Beiwaionline, I hope I can find solutions to the problem that has troubled me for some time through action research so that I can apply what I have learned into practice. Hopefully, the present situation in teaching oral English can be improved and my students can also benefit from the project.

   The purpose for learning English in China has changed in recent years due to the open Door Policy. In the past, everyday communication was not the main goal because one didn’t need to listen and speak in English. So the Grammar-Translation Method started to get more and more popular from 1700’s, 1800’s in Europe. It is the one which has been used in the foreign language leaching for the longest time. It has some advantages which are well known, such as to improve the learning effect through students’ comprehension to the grammar rules, etc. But the deficiency of it is apparent. For example, it ignores the oral teaching, etc. (Li, 1983:34) 

   ……………………………………………………………………………………

2. Problem Identification and Analysis

2.1 Problem Identification

   In my speaking class, the students usually read and recite the texts or key sentences. …… So when I give them some topics and ask them to talk about them, they don’t seem to be interested.

                               

   

                   4

  …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2.2 Methods of Analysis (see Appendix A)

   2.2.1 The Analytic Method  

   My problem is: Some of my students are not interested in oral practice. Through the analytic method analysis, I made a chain of reflections about “others” and “my colleagues’ students” compared with “some of” and “my students”. The result showed that they are not 

   ……………………………………………………………………………………

3. Project Objective and Hypothesis

   ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………


4. Results and Discussion

   ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Graph 1: Comparison of degree of interest


   The objective of our research is to enhance my students’ interest in doing oral practice, such a result (from 44.5% to70.1%) is very encouraging. It proves that the implementation of the solutions is fruitful and effective.


   ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………


5. Conclusion

   Nearly three months ago, I determined to work on the crucial problem that some of my students are not interested in oral practice. The present study is chiefly based on the project that I proceeded from Sub, 2004 to Nov, 2004, which aimed to enhance my students’ interest in doing oral practice. Now I can be very glad to say that my problem has been successfully solved (For instance, most of my students, 70.1% of them, start to like doing oral practice.) So the conclusion of the project is that learners’ interest in oral practice can be increased by well-designed oral work. Well-designed oral work can “ ensure that you are achieving the balance between old and new language items, accuracy and fluency practice, and language and skills work, and that you do not lose sight of your main goal, communication.” (Davies & Pearse, 2002:78) 

   ……………………………………………………………………………………


References

            

[1] Alexander, L.G.. New Concept English (2)[M]. 上海:世界图书出版公司,1993. 

[2] Gardner, David & Lindsay Miller. Establishing Self-access [M].上海:上海外语教育出版社, 2002: 43-47.

[3] Johnson, Keith. An Introduction to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching [M].北京:外语教学与研究出版社, 2002: 38-39.

[4] Lightbown, P. M. & Nina Spada. How Languages Are Learned [M].上海:上海外语教育出版社, 2002: 117-169.

[…] ……………………………………………………………………………………

[12] 鲍继平(Bao, Jiping). 模块化胜学法浅探[J]. 外语与外语教学, 2003,(3): 19-22.

[13] 李晓(Li ,Xiao). 试论外语教学”三大原则”及其实践途径[J].外语与外语教学, 2003,(8): 19-21.

[14] 项茂英(Xiang, Maoying). 情感因素对大学英语教学的影响—理论与实证研究[J]. 外语与外语教学, 2003,(3): 23-26.



英文论文中的语言技巧

2007-10-03 17:23

A)如何指出当前研究的不足以及有目的地引导出自己的研究的重要性通常在叙述了前人成果之后,用However来引导不足,比如

However, little information..

little attention...

little work...

little data

little research

or few studies

few investigations...

few researchers...

few attempts...

or no

none of these studies

has (have) been less

done on ...

focused on

attempted to

conducted

investigated

studied

(with respect to)

Previous research (studies, records) has (have)

failed to consider

ignored

misinterpreted

neglected to

overestimated, underestimated

misleaded

thus, these previus results are inconclisive, misleading, unsatisfactory, questionable, controversial..

Uncertainties (discrepancies) still exist ...

这种引导一般提出一种新方法,或者一种新方向。如果研究的方法以及方向和前人一样,可以通过下面的方式强调自己工作的作用:

However, data is still scarce

rare

less accurate

there is still dearth of

We need to

aim to

have to

provide more documents

data

records

studies

increase the dataset

Further studies are still necessary...

essential...

为了强调自己研究的重要性,一般还要在However之前介绍自己研究问题的反方面,另一方面等等

比如:

1)时间问题

如果你研究的问题时间上比较新,你就可以大量提及对时间较老的问题的研究及重要性,然后说(However),对时间尺度比较新的问题研究不足

2)物性及研究手段问题

如果你要应用一种新手段或者研究方向,你可以提出当前比较流行的方法以及物质性质,然后说对你所研究的方向和方法,研究甚少。

3)研究区域问题

首先总结相邻区域或者其它区域的研究,然后强调这一区域研究不足

4)不确定性

虽然前人对这一问题研究很多,但是目前有两种或者更多种的观点,这种uncertanties, ambiguities,值得进一步澄清

5)提出自己的假设来验证

如果自己的研究完全是新的,没有前人的工作进行对比,在这种情况下,你可以自信地说,根据提出的过程,存在这种可能的结果,本文就是要

证实这种结果。

We aim to test the feasibility (reliability) of the ...

It is hoped that the qutestion will be resolved (fall away) with our proposed method (approach).

B) 提出自己的观点

We aim to

This paper reports on

provides results

extends the method..

focus on

The purpose of this paper is to

Furthermore, Moreover, In addition,, we will also discuss...

c) 圈定自己的研究范围

前言的另外一个作用就是告诉读者包括(reviewer)你的文章主要研究内容。如果处理不好,reviewer会提出严厉的建议,比如你没有考虑某种可能性,某种研究手段等等。

为了减少这种争论,在前言的结尾你就要明确提出本文研究的范围:

1)时间尺度问题

如果你的问题涉及比较长的时序,你可以明确地提出本文只关心这一时间范围的问题。

We preliminarily focus on the older (younger)...

或者有两种时间尺度的问题 (long-term and short term),你可以说两者都重要,但是本文只涉及其中一种

2) 研究区域的问题

和时间问题一样,明确提出你只关心这一地区

d) 最后的原场

在前言的最后,还可以总结性地提出,这一研究对其它研究的帮助。

或者说,further studies on ... will be summarized in our next study (or elsewhere)

总之,其目的就是让读者把思路集中到你要讨论的问题上来。减少争论(arguments).

关于词汇以及常用结构,要经常总结,多读多模仿才能融会贯通。

-------------------------------------------------------------

怎样提出观点

在提出自己的观点时,采取什么样的策略很重要。

不合适的句子通常会遭到reviewer的置疑。

1)如果观点不是这篇文章最新提出的,通常要用

We confirm that...

2)对于自己很自信的观点,可用

We believe that...

3)在更通常的情况下,由数据推断出一定的结论,用, Results indicate, infer, suggest, imply that...

4) 在及其特别的情况才可以用We put forward

(discover, observe..) .. "for the first time".

来强调自己的创新。

5) 如果自己对所提出的观点不完全肯定,可用

We tentatively put forward (interrprete this to..)Or The results may be due to (caused by) attributed to rsulted from..Or This is probably a onsequence of It seems that .. can account for (interpret) this..Or It is pisible that it stem from...

---------------------------------------------------------

连接词与逻辑

写英文论文最常见的一个毛病就是文章的逻辑不清楚。解决的方法有:

1)句子上下要有连贯,不能让句子之间独立常见的连接词语有, However, also, in addition,consequently, afterwards, moreover, Furthermore,further, although, unlike, in contrast, Similarly,Unfortunately, alternatively, parallel results,In order to, despite, For example, Compared with other results, thus, therefore...

用好这些连接词,能够使观点表达得有层次,更加明确。

比如,如果叙述有时间顺序的事件或者文献,最早的文献可用AA advocated it for the first time.接下来,可用Then BB further demonstrated that..再接下来,可用Afterwards, CC..如果还有,可用More recent studies by DD..

如果叙述两种观点,要把它们截然分开

AA pput forward that...

In contrast, BB believe

or Unlike AA, BB suggest

or On the contrary (表明前面的观点错误,如果只是表明两种对立的观点,用in contrast), BB..

如果两种观点相近,可用

AA suggest Similarily, alternatively, BB..Or Also, BB or BB allso does ..

表示因果或者前后关系,可用Consequently, therefore, as a result,

表明递进关系,可用furthermore, further, moreover, in addition,当写完一段英文,最好首先检查一下是否较好地应用了这些连接词。

2) 段落的整体逻辑

经常我们要叙述一个问题的几个方面。这种情况下,一定要注意逻辑结构。

首先第一段要明确告诉读者你要讨论几个部份

...Therefore, there are three aspects of this problen have to

be addressed.

The first questuon involves...

The second problem relates to

The thrid aspect deals with...

上面的例子可以清晰地把观点逐层叙述。Or, 可以直接用First, Second, Third...Finally,..当然,Furthermore, in addition等可以用来补充说明。

3) 讨论部份的整体结构

小标题是比较好的方法把要讨论的问题分为几个片段。

一般第一个片段指出文章最为重要的数据与结论。补充说明的部份可以放在最后一个片段。

一定要明白文章的读者会分为多个档次。文章除了本专业的专业人士读懂以外,一定要想办法能让更多的外专业人读懂。

所以可以把讨论部份分为两部份,一部份提出观点,另一部份详细介绍过程以及论述的依据。这样专业外的人士可以了解文章的主要观点,比较专业的讨论他可以把它当成黑箱子,而这一部份本专业人士可以进一步研究。

为了使文章清楚,第一次提出概念时,最好加以个括弧,给出较为详细的解释。

如果文章用了很多的Abbreviation, 两种方法加以解决

1) 在文章最好加上个Appendix,把所有Abreviation列表

2) 在不同的页面上,不时地给出Abbreciation的含义,用来提醒读者。

总之,写文章的目的是要让读者读懂,读得清晰,并且采取各种措施方便于读者。

---------------------------------------------------------

一定要注意绝对不能全面否定前人的成果,即使在你看来前人的结论完全不对。这是前人工作最起码的尊重,英文叫做给别人的工作credits.

所以文章不要出现非常negative的评价,比如Their results

are wrong, very questionable, have no commensence, etc.

遇到这类情况,可以婉转地提出:

Their studies may be more reasonable if they had

considered this situation.

Their results could be better convinced if they ...

Or Their conclusion may remain some uncertanties.

讨论部份还包括什么内容?

1. 主要数据特征的总结

2. 主要结论以及与前人观点的对比

3. 本文的不足

第三点,在一般作者看来不可取。事实上给出文章的不足恰恰是保护自己文章的重要手段。如果刻意隐藏文章的漏洞,觉得别人看不出来,是非常不明智的。

所谓不足,包括以下内容:

1. 研究的问题有点片面,讨论时一定要说,

It should be noted that this study has examined only..

We concentrate (focus) on only...

We have to point out that we do not..

Some limitations of this study are...

2. 结论有些不足

The results do not imply,

The results can not be used to determine

be taken as evidence of

Unfortunately, we can not determien this from this data

Our results are lack of ...

但是,在指出这些不足之后,随后一定要再一次加强本文的重要性以及可能采取的手段来解决这些不足,为别人或者自己的下一步研究打下浮笔。

Notwithstading its limitation, this tudy does suggest..

However, these problems culd be solved if we consdier

Despite its preliminary character, this study can clearly indicate..

用中文来说,这一部份是左右逢源。把审稿人想到的问题提前给一个交代,同时表明你已经在思考这些问题,但是由于文章长度,试验进度或者试验手段的制约,暂时不能回答这些问题。但是,这些通过你的一些建议,这些问题在将来的研究中游可能实现。


论文英文摘要

2007-06-19 01:32

如何写英文摘要(有需要的过来看看!)

如何写英文摘要

一、概述 

  文章摘要是对所写文章主要内容的精炼概括。美国人称摘要为“Abstract”,而英国人则喜欢称其为“Summary”。

  通常国际刊物要求所要刊登的文章字数,包括摘要部分不超过1万字。而对文章摘要部分的字数要求则更少。因此,写摘要时,应用最为简练的语言来表达论文之精华。论文摘要的重点应放在所研究的成果和结论上。

  国际会议要求的论文摘要的字数不等,一般为200字-500字。而国际刊物要求所刊登的论文摘要的字数通常是100字-200字。摘要的位置一般放在一篇文章的最前面,内容上涵盖全文,并直接点明全旨。语言上要求尽量简炼。摘要通常多采用第三人称撰写。

  科学书籍、论文和学术报告一般都附有内容摘要,这样可以节省读者的时间,使他们不必读完整个文章就能够了解它的主要内容。书籍摘要,一般放在封二或封三;论文和学术报告的摘要,一般放在正文前面。摘要应做到简明扼要,切题,能独立成文,使读者能准确地了解书籍的要义。写摘要时,最好用第三人称的完整的陈述句,文长一般不超过200个词。  

摘要分陈述性的(Descriptive)和资料性的(Informational)两类。陈述性摘要只陈述书籍或文章的主题,不介绍内容。资料性的摘要除了介绍主题外,还应介绍文章的要点和各个要点的主要内容。

  它可以包括三个组成部分

  ①点明主题,解析文章或书籍的目的或意图;

  ②介绍主要内容,使读者迅速了解文章或书籍的概貌;

  ③提出结论或建议,以供读者参考。

  二、常见句型

  常见的摘要句型有:

  1)This paper deals with...

  2)This article focuses on the topics of (that,having,etc)...

  3)This eassy presents knowledge that...

  4)This thesis discusses...

  5)This thesis analyzes...

  6)This paper provides an overview of...

  7)This paper elaborates on ...

  8)This article gives an overview of...

  9)This article compares...and summarizes key findings.

  10)This paper includes discussions concerning...

  11)This paper presents up to date information on...

  12)This article covers the role of chemicals in...

  13)This paper addresses important topics including...

  14)This paper touches upon...

  15)This paper strongly emphasizes...

  16)This eassy represents the preceedings of ...

  17)This article not only describes...but also suggests...

  18)This paper considers...

  19)This paper provides a method of ...

  20)This paper introduces an applicable procedure to analyze...

  21)This paper offers the latest information regarding...

  22)This paper is devoted to examining the role of...

  23)This article explores...

  24)This paper expresses views on...

  25)This paper reflects the state of the art in...

  26)This paper explains the procedures for...

  27)This paper develops the theory of ...

  28)This article reviews the techniques used in...

  29)This paper investigates the techniques and procedures to...

  30)This article is about...

  31)This eassy is related to ...

  32)This paper concerns...

  33)This paper gives an account of ...

  34)This article tells of...

  35)This paper tries to describe...

  36)This paper provides an analysis of ...

  37)This paper reports the latest information on ...

  38)The author of this article reviews...

  39)The writer of this paper discusses...

  40)The writer of this eassy tries to explore...

  41)The aim of this paper is to determine...

  42)The purpose of this article is to review...

  43)The objective of this paper is to explore...

  破题用语,一般有:

  ①The author of this article reviews (or: discusses,describes,summarizes,examines)something……

  ②This article reviews (or:reports,tells of,is about,concerns)something…….

  ③This article has been prepared (or:designed,written)…….

  ④The purpose of this article is to determine something…….

  ⑤The problem of something is discussed …….

  结论和建议,一般有以下几种写法:

  ①The author suggests (recommends,concludes)that…….

  ②This article shows that…….

  ③It is suggested that…….

  ④The author's suggestion (or:conclusion )is that ……

  ⑤The author finds it necessary to …….

  三、分类举例

1)陈述型论文摘要。陈述型论文摘要(Descriptive Abstract)一般只说明论文的主题是什么,多半不介绍内容。

例1

ABSTRACT

This article extends Lehand and Pyle(1997)model to include the possibility that manager may exploit cooperate wealth through transactions with affiliated companies and/or individuals.The results of our model show that the amounts of wealth exploitation are affected by several factors.They are inorderly managerial stockholding,the severity of penalty,the manager's risk attitude,firm's expected future cash flows,and the variance of future cash flows.What's more, the relation between managerial holding and the amount of wealth exploitation is not seperate.Wealth exploitation rises with management share holdings before the break point.When managerial holding exceeds the break point,any further increase in the management holdings will decrease the amount of wealth exploitation.

例2

ABSTRACT

The effect of price limit on the stock return,volatility and the structural change is analyzed through a generalized autoregressive conditional heterscedasticity(GARCH)model.The interaction between stock returns and its volatility is permitted in each price limit regime.While the stock return does not go up when the price limit goes down from 5%to 7%.The stock volatility,on the other hand,is substantially different across three regimes. The higher the price limit,the larger is the volatility.In end the GARCH model does not suffer from the structural change when price limits change.

例3

ABSTRACT

This issue presents a complete survey on the integrin,immunoglobulin,and selection families cellular expression patterns on endothelial, resident cells and graft infiltrating cells in human stomach, heart ,and lung transplants.It describes the patterns of cellular expression and inducibility in different pathological conditions of the graft.It also discusses the implications for the organ specific appearance of inflammatory reactions in human stomach,heart and lung transplants as for immunosuppressive and therapeutic interventions.

例4

ABSTRACT

We classfied firm's finacing decisions into four categories:internal financing banking,bank loans,convertible bonds and preferred stocks,and new common shares.

This paper uses pooled cross-section and time series data.When the adjusted data is used,we find that B/M has explanatory power to stock returns for the new-issue category;C/F for the internal financing category.

The size variable is also significant in all categories.However,the sign is not consistent.The convertible category has reverse size effect and others have size effects.As for the E/P variable,we don't find any additional explanatory power to stock returns for any category.The use of different definition of size hardly changes our results.

例5

Contact Problems in the Classical Theory of Elasticity

CONTACT PROBLEMS IN THE CLASSICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

by G.M.Gladwell

This article gives an account of contact problems in the classical theory of elasticity.It begins from fundamental principles and aims to offer information on recent developments on this subject that the reader can take advantage to widen his horizon of contact problems.

例6

Use of Engineering Metals

Use of Engineering Metals

ABSTRACT

This article shows us the importance of metals in our daily life,especially in machine building and engineering construction.Metals that are used in industry are called engineering metals,of which the most widely-used is iron. Therefore,production of iron is very critical to the development of a nation.

例7

Pure and Applied Science

Pure and Applied Science

ABSTRACT

In this article ,the author holds that pure science is fundermentally concerned with the development of theories establishing relationships between the phenomena of the universe. On the other hand applied science,is directly connected with the application of the working laws of pure science to the practical affairs in the life,and to man's increasing control over the environment,thus leading to the development of new techniques,processes and machines.It is evident that many branches of applied science are practical extensions of purely theoretical or experimental work.It shows to us that these two branches of science are mutually dependent and interacting.

2)信息型论文摘要。信息型论文摘要(Informational Abstract)与陈述型论文摘要相比,略有不同。它除了介绍论文的主题外,还应介绍论文的主要观点以及各观点部分的核心内容。这种形式实际中相对少见。显然,这种形式的摘要较陈述型摘要长得多。例如:

例1

Probable Development of Agricultural Mechanization

Probable Development of Agricultural Mechanization

ABSTRACT

This article reviews the past achievements in agricultural mechanization and aims to predict the developments in the immediate future.It is widely acknowledged that to cope with greater crop output,it is necessary to make use of more powerful equipment that is capable of more extensive work within the limited time.

The main problems are discussed under the following headings.

1)General Trend of Machanization

2)Mechanization of Crop Farming

3)Mechanization of Animal Husbandry

The article concludes that further progress of agricultural mechanization depends on,to a great extent,the development of mechanical industry,which should be spurred and encouraged.

例2

Cultural Factors in Translation and Their Transfer

Cultural Factors in Translation and Their Transfer

ABSTRACT

This thesis attempts to apply general knowledge of linguistics,anthropology and translation to the research of cultural factors in translation and their transfer.

The thesis concludes a brief introduction and four chapters.The introduction presents the specific topic and raises several related issues.Chapter One is devoted to the relationship between language,culture and translation.Chapter Two focus on the categorization of cultural factors in translation.Chapter Three talks about three topics:translatability,major translation methods of cultural factors,and the transfer of some important cultural subcategories.The last chapter,gives an analysis of some inappropriate translations and draws a general conclusion for the whole thesis.


例3

ABSTRACT


Internationalization and liberalization of business activities have become two of the most significant phenomena for the successful operations of contemporary enterprises.At present,the prevalence of national protectionism and the establishment of regional economic communites,have further enhanced many firms to take part in overseas investments in order that the tariff and non-tarriff barriers of the products could be reduced or eliminated.

Yet ,companies operate in different countries with different political,legal,economic,and social cultural surroundings might have different management styles and strategic operating patterns.Traditionally,the Japanese and the US management patterns are two of the most important reference models for the operations of domestic enterprises.Thus, to promote the success of business internationalization activities,it would be very helpful for the domestic firms in Taiwan to evaluate the similarites and differences of the characteristics of business operations for the US and the Japanese firms especially on management styles,organizational structures,and business performances.

Through a series of personal interview and mail survey,this study concluded the following findings:

(1)Firms with different investment origins(i.e.,Taiwanese,American,and Japanese firms)tended to operate differently on constructs of cooperate objectives,organizational structures,competitive strategies, and management performances.

(2)For cooperate objectives,Japanese firms tended to emphasize organizational development objectives through educating and activating human resources,while American firms favor financial objective such as improving cash flow and profitability.For organizational structures,American firms achieved higher levels of delegation authority and operation formalization than those of Japanese and Taiwanees firms.For competitive strategies,American firms tended to emphasize product differentiation and cost leadership strategies while Japanese firms favor process innovation and product differentiation strategies.

(3)Firms selecting process innovation and product development strategies tended to emphasize both organizational development and sales growth objectives .These firms tended to be very sensitive on the potentials of industry development.In addition,firms adopting cost leadership strategies tended to emphasize sales growth objectives.In a word,these firms seemed to exercise higher levels of formalization and standardization of business activities.

英文论文和摘要写作中的表述

2007-11-20 23:33

1.xx 的特征在于: xx is characterized by…

2.xx 的2 个重要特征是:Two critical characteristics of xx are …

3.爱因斯坦指出xx 的特征如下:Einstein identified the following characteristicsof xx…

4.Generally, … 一般来讲,原则上 … 千万不要用in principle,此原则非彼原则也

5.已经采用了: have adopted …

6.近年来: in recent years

7.over/during the past 10 years. 比如我们说SC 过去10 年间发展很快,用over,over 是一段时间的事儿;during 是事情发生在什么期间,有时间点的意思。

8.出于各种原因:for a variety of reasons

9.此外,另外:moreover, in addition

10.即: “…, namely …”

11.A 与B 的区别在于:A and B differ in the terms of …

12.谈及,关于:In terms of…

13.这些区别是因为:some of the difference stem from…

14.为了让:In order for xx to …

15.很大程度上依赖于rely heavily on …

16.基于 … is based on…

17.不是…而是… not …, but rather …

18.这方面的例子有… “…, exemplified by …”

19.严格限制:impose the stringent restrictions on …; 受到这些限制:besubject to the restrictions.

20.产生这个问题的原因与… 有关:The problem arises in part from …

[Tip]:多用although, however, while, moreover, in addition 这样的词儿,句子之间的逻辑关系显得很清楚,


Abstract Writing


Basically,  Abstract is a one-paragraph synopsis of your entire paper.The abstract is placed at the beginning of the second page of the paper, after the title page. 

Although Abstract is the first section of one paper, the Abstract shouldnot be written until the rest of the paper is completely done because it is a brief summary of everything else.  It should be understandable by itself, and briefly tell your reader the main messages in paper. A well-preparedabstract should enable the reader to identify the basic content of a document quickly and accurately, to determine its relevance to their interests. 

The abstract should mainly state the principal objectives and scope of the investigation where these are not obvious from the title. 

Start by writing a summary that includes whatever you think is important, and then gradually prune it down to size by removing unnecessary  words, while still retaining the necessary concepts.

More importantly, it should summarize the question being investigatedor main purpose in the paper, the methods used in the experiment, the major results and author’s principal conclusions. Condense the whole paper into miniature form plus the key points. No new information, no supporting material, limited details, just the essential message that explains what you did and found out. Do not include details of the methods employed unless the study is methodological, i.e. primarily concerned with methods. 

The abstract must be concise, not exceeding 250 words. If you can convey the essential details of the paper in 100 words, do not use 200. Present the important findings, including values and methods that are crucial to understanding and interpreting the findings. The reader should be able to determine the major topics in the paper without reading the entire paper.

In summary, the Abstract should not exceed 250 words and should define clearly what is dealt with in the paper. The Abstract should: 

1.        State the principal objectives and scope of the investigation (What       did you investigate? Why?).

2.        Describe the methodology employed (What did you do?).

3.        Summarize the most important results (What did you find out?). 

4.        State the principal conclusions and significance. (What do your           results mean? So what?)

Sometimes, the first section can be omitted according to the research work you carried out, or coupled the first two sections into one or two sentence (example 2). If more than one method was employed during the experiments, the results might be integrated with each method respectively in one or more sentences (example3). 

The importance of the conclusions is indicated by the fact that they should be said three times: once in the Abstract, again in the Introduction, and again (in more detail probably) in the Discussion. 



1. Quotations:


The following are examples of quoting original texts published in other authors’ work:

1)     The audiolingual approach to language learning is summed up succinctly by Alexander (1968) : “Listen before you speak, speak before you read, read before you write.”

2)     Fermando Pessoa sought to resolve the tensions in his personality by breaking his poetic self down into four different authors. In adopting such a path, he was clearly echoing Keats’s famous observation that ‘the poetic character … is not itself – it has no self … A poet is the most unpoetical of anything in existence; because he has no Identity – he is continually informing and filling some other Body …’ (1895)

3)     Leftwich’s resource allocation definition of politics is somewhat broader than a power conception, so it may be more vulnerable to the criticism that it collapses the distinction between the political and the social. His original formulation of that definition was:

Politics consists of all the activities of co-operation and conflict, within and between societies, whereby the human species goes about obtaining, using producing and distributing resources in the course of the production and reproduction of its social and biological life. (Leftwich, 1985)

When you are using a direct quotation or a single phrase or sentence, double quotation marks should be used around the words, which must be quoted exactly as they appear in the original. However, as in Example 2), when you wish to omit some of the author’s original words which are not relevant to your writing, three dots can be used to indicate where you have omitted words. If the material quoted already contain a quotation, it is necessary to change the single quotation marks in the original to double quotation marks to indicate that these were the author’s quotation marks and not yours. Apart from the changes in quotation marks mentioned above, you should reproduce exactly the punctuation and spelling of the original. Longer quotations, of more than three lines, should be indented as a separate paragraph with no quotation marks as in Example 3).

Full details of sources and authors mentioned should be given in the bibliography.


2. Paraphrase:


The following are examples of paraphrases:

1) Paraphrases by reporting:


l          Brown (1983: 231) claims that the communicative way of teaching is a far more effective approach in ELT.

l          Quoting Bott (1977), Milroy (1980: 135) points out that ….

Brown is the surname of the author, and the information in brackets refers to the year and page number of the publication quoted, details of which should be presented in the bibliography at the end of the essay. It is useful but not essential to give page numbers. You need to check with the department you are studying at about its conventions. A problem sometimes arises when an author (A) mentions the interesting work of another writer (B) but the book or article by B is unobtainable. Then it can be written like the second example.

2) Paraphrases by referencing:

l          A previous report (Blake, 1977) indicates the importance of such prior knowledge.

l          Several researchers have testified to the limitations of this method (Koo, 1985; Manson, 1961; Watkins, 1979)

l          The students may confuse the object-relative pattern with the subject-relative pattern (Abbott, 1969, quoted in Ponsonby 1990:36)

References are similar to reporting except that in references the authors’ names are given in brackets only and are not referred to directly in the text. Again, full details of the work of authors mentioned should be given in the bibliography. If several authors’ names are included in the brackets, you should arrange them according to either the alphabetic order of the authors’ names or the years of their publications.  The format of references should adhere to standard APA style, which is described in many books on thesis writing.


Full details of the sources and authors mentioned should be given in the bibliography.


3. Bibliography


1) References to books

The following information should be given for each book:

a)        Author: Deng Yanchang & Liu Runqing

b)       Book Title: Language and Culture

c)        Date of Publication: 1991

d)       Publisher: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

e)        Place of Publication: Beijing

In the bibliography, the information should appear as in the following example:

Deng, Y.C. & R.Q. Liu. (1991). Language and Culture.  Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.

Pay special attention to the punctuation used.  The title of the book should be in italics.  The details should conform to the conventions of APA style.

2) References to articles in collection of articles

The following information should be given for each article:

a)          Author of the Article: Robert G. Hanvey

b)         Title of the Article: Cross-cultural Awareness

c)          Date: 1979

d)         Title of the Book: Selective Reading in Intercultural Communication

e)          Editor of the Book: Hu Wenzhong

f)          Date of Publication: 1990

g)         Publisher: Hu Nan Education Press

h)         Place of Publication: Hu Nan

The bibliography should appear as in the following example:

Hanvey, R.G. (1979). Cross-cultural Awareness.  In Hu, W.Z. (Ed.), Selective Reading in Intercultural Communication (1990).  Hu Nan: Hu Nan Education Press.

The title of the book in which the article was found should be in italics.  Complete information about the book containing the selected work should also appear.

3) References to articles in journals

The following information should be given for each article in a journal:

a)        Author of the Article: Lambert Richard West

b)       Title of the Article: Approaches to Cultural Teaching 

c)        Date: 1995

d)       Pages: 283-299

e)        Name of the Journal: Journal of Social Issues

f)        Volume of the Journal: 23

g)       Number of the Journal: 2

In the bibliography, the information should appear as in the following example:

West, R.L. (1996).  Approaches to Cultural Teaching.  In the Journal of Social Issues 23/2:283-299.

The title of the article from a journal should separated from the rest of the text with a period. You must include a bibliography or list of references at the end of every piece of academic writing. Whatever format for a bibliography you choose to follow, consistency is the most important thing.  For this reason, we have selected “APA style” as the standard that you should follow.  If you list only works that you have referred to in your essay, you should entitle your list “References”. The title “Bibliography” is used when, in addition to sources cited in your essay, you also include background reading that you have not cited.  Usually, entries are arranged according to the alphabetical order of the authors’ surname.  Look at the example of a short bibliography below to see how the entire list should appear.  For details regarding how to format other types of entries, you may consult any book on thesis writing that discusses APA style or refer to one of the many articles on this topic on the internet.


4. A sample bibliography


Note that entries should be arranged in alphabetical order.

Ager, D., Musken, G. & S. Wright. (Eds). (1993). Language Education for Intercultural Communication.  Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Anderson, J. (1993).  Is a communicative approach practical for teaching in China? Pros & cons. In System 21/4: 471-480.

Barro, A., Byram, M. & H. Grimm. (1993). Cultural studies for advanced language learners. In Graddol et al (Eds.), Intercultural Monthly (pp. 55-70).

Canale, M. & M. Swain. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. In Applied Linguistics 1/1 (pp. 1-47).

Cao, Xudong. (1993). Designing An In-Service Methodology Course For Chinese University English Teachers. Unpublished M.Ed. Thesis: CELSE in the University of Manchester.

Graddol, D. & L. Thompson & M. Byram (Eds.). (1993).  Language and Culture.  Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.


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